Steroid cover for dental patients on long-term steroid medication: proposed clinical guidelines based upon a critical review of the literature

  Glucocorticoids were first introduced in the 1940s and have become a widely pre-scribed class of drugs. Subsequently, con-cern developed regarding the potential of exogenous steroids to suppress normaladrenal gland function. This resulted in development of recommendations for additional glucocorticoid supplementation, or ‘steroid cover’, for management of patients undergoing stressful situations such as surgery or … Continue reading

Blood–brain barrier (BBB) – separation of circulating blood from BECF in CNS

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a separation of circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid (BECF) in the central nervous system (CNS). It occurs along all capillaries and consists of tight junctions around the capillaries that do not exist in normal circulation. Endothelial cells restrict the diffusion of microscopic objects (e.g., bacteria) and large or hydrophilic … Continue reading

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), also known as corticotropin

  A polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.   It is an important component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often produced in response to biological stress (along with its precursor corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus) .  Its principal effects are increased production and release of corticosteroids.   Associated conditions   Diseases … Continue reading

CN7

Excessive pressure at angle of Mandible during patent airway establishment damages the CN 7 CN7 Provides motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, posterior belly of the digastric muscle,stylohyoid muscle, and stapedius muscle. Also receives the special sense of taste from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue and provides secretomotor innervation to the salivary glands (except parotid) and the lacrimal gland. Located in and runs through the internal acoustic canal to the facial canal and … Continue reading

Gate Control Theory of Pain

To explain why thoughts and emotions influence pain perception, Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall proposed that a gating mechanism exists within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Small nerve fibers (pain receptors) and large nerve fibers (“normal” receptors) synapse on projection cells (P), which go up the spinothalamic tract to the brain, and inhibitory … Continue reading

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