Hospital ‘superbug’ – ”carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae” (CPE)

  Sleep Walking in Super bug Crisis   Doctors are unsure how many patients have been killed by carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae. Hospitals in England are not required to officially report infections of a “superbug” capable of resisting our most powerful antibiotics, a BBC investigation has found. Cases of “carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae” (CPE) have shown a sharp rise. … Continue reading

Hand in Diagnosis

Clubbing In medicine, nail clubbing (also known as drumstick fingers and watch-glass nails) is a deformity of the fingers and fingernails associated with a number of diseases, mostly of the heart and lungs. Hippocrates was probably the first to document clubbing as a sign of disease, and the phenomenon is therefore occasionally called Hippocratic fingers. … Continue reading

Brain : Alzheimer’s Association

Your brain is your most powerful organ, yet weighs only about three pounds. It has a texture similar to firm jelly. It has three main parts: The cerebrum fills up most of your skull. It is involved in remembering, problem solving, thinking, and feeling. It also controls movement. The cerebellum sits at the back of … Continue reading

What’s In A Flu Name? Hs And Ns Tell A Tale

In biology, you can’t get much simpler than viruses. They stick onto cells, pop open and then dump their genes inside to reproduce. But the naming of viruses isn’t so easy to follow. There’s the new H7N9 spreading through China. And H5N1 is popping up in Southeast Asia. Last summer, H3N2 sickened dozens of people … Continue reading

Scientists Clone Human Embryos To Make Stem Cells

Human cloning has been used to produce early embryos, marking a “significant step” for medicine, say US scientists. The cloned embryos were used as a source of stem cells, which can make new heart muscle, bone, brain tissue or any other type of cell in the body. Scientists say they have, for the first time, … Continue reading

Blood–brain barrier (BBB) – separation of circulating blood from BECF in CNS

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a separation of circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid (BECF) in the central nervous system (CNS). It occurs along all capillaries and consists of tight junctions around the capillaries that do not exist in normal circulation. Endothelial cells restrict the diffusion of microscopic objects (e.g., bacteria) and large or hydrophilic … Continue reading

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), also known as corticotropin

  A polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.   It is an important component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often produced in response to biological stress (along with its precursor corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus) .  Its principal effects are increased production and release of corticosteroids.   Associated conditions   Diseases … Continue reading

CN7

Excessive pressure at angle of Mandible during patent airway establishment damages the CN 7 CN7 Provides motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, posterior belly of the digastric muscle,stylohyoid muscle, and stapedius muscle. Also receives the special sense of taste from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue and provides secretomotor innervation to the salivary glands (except parotid) and the lacrimal gland. Located in and runs through the internal acoustic canal to the facial canal and … Continue reading

Gate Control Theory of Pain

To explain why thoughts and emotions influence pain perception, Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall proposed that a gating mechanism exists within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Small nerve fibers (pain receptors) and large nerve fibers (“normal” receptors) synapse on projection cells (P), which go up the spinothalamic tract to the brain, and inhibitory … Continue reading

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